Rise in incidence of early-onset colorectal precancerous lesions in patients under age 50

Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have reported an increase in early-onset colorectal cancer and precancerous polyps, based on a large, nationally representative study of patients under age 50 who underwent colonoscopy. It is the first large-scale study to look at precancerous polyps in this age group. The findings were featured in the paper, Prevalence and Predictors of Young-Onset Colorectal Neoplasia: Insights from a Nationally Representative Colonoscopy Registry, published in Gastroenterology.

Adenomas arise from expansion of stem cells that are driven by activation of WNT signalling

A team of Vanderbilt researchers has revealed some of the mechanisms by which polyps develop into colorectal cancer, setting the framework for improved surveillance for the cancer utilising precision medicine. The findings were published in the paper, 'Differential pre-malignant programs and microenvironment chart distinct paths to malignancy in human colorectal polyps', published in Cell

Study associates gut fungi to intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease patients

Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have revealed that new treatment options for Crohn's disease patients may be on the horizon thanks to the research linking a common fungal pathogen to inflammatory bowel disease. Their findings were featured in the study, ‘Candida tropicalis Infection Modulates the Gut Microbiome and Confers Enhanced Susceptibility to Colitis in Mice’, published Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Specific diets for IBS less important than expected

A large study from Chalmers University of Technology and Uppsala University, Sweden, indicates that gluten and certain types of carbohydrates called 'fodmaps' have less effect than expected on IBS symptoms and does not show a relationship between high intake of gluten and increased IBS symptoms. However, the researchers did find that a certain type of carbohydrate called 'fodmaps' can aggravate intestinal problems, however, the overall results indicate that they also have less influence than previously thought.

TNFR could be key to treat inflammatory bowel disease

Biomedical scientists at the University of California, Riverside, propose a way for drugs to be more effective against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the intestine undergoes inflammation. IBD, a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine, includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It is commonly treated with one of several available biological drugs that block an inflammatory molecule called Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, or TNF-alpha, from binding to two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2.