Medtronic gains 510(k) clearance for PillCam Small Bowel 3 @HOME endoscopy procedure

Medtronic has gained FDA 510(k) clearance for its PillCam Small Bowel 3 system for remote endoscopy procedures. The PillCam SB3 @HOME program combines Medtronic's PillCam technology with Amazon logistics, a combination intended to ensure both timely and accurate results for patients from the comfort of their homes. PillCam Small Bowel 3 is only cleared for remote use in the US It is not approved for this use in other countries or regions.

Low FODMAP diet could benefit people with IBS

People who respond well to the recommended dietary therapy of restricting intake of fermentable carbs for irritable bowel syndrome have an abundance of particular types of bacteria in their gut, according to the paper, 'Two microbiota subtypes identified in irritable bowel syndrome with distinct responses to the low FODMAP diet', published in Gut. The finding opens up the potential for new treatments and better management of the condition, which affects up to 15% of people worldwide, say the researchers.

Patients significantly more likely to recommend the C-Scan capsule than colonoscopy

Patients who underwent the C-Scan test to detect polyps before they may transform into colorectal cancer (CRC), as part of the 2019 US pilot study, were significantly more likely to recommend C-Scan test compared to colonoscopy. The findings were reported in the paper, ‘Colorectal Cancer and Polyp Detection Using a New Preparation-Free, Colon-Scan Capsule: A Pilot Study of Safety and Patient Satisfaction’, published in the journal Digestive Diseases and Sciences.

AI classifies colorectal polyps proves useful for pathologists

In a 2020 study, researchers at Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center developed artificial intelligence (AI) to distinguish the four major types of colorectal polyps removed during screening colonoscopy. The model not only produced results that demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity at the level of practicing pathologists, but withstood evaluation using broad datasets spanning multiple institutions across the US, proving that AI models are generalisable and can be trained on widespread external data.

Stress associated with Crohn's disease flare-ups

A possible link between psychological stress and Crohn's disease flare-ups has been identified by a McMaster University-led study. Researchers using mouse models found that stress hormones suppressed the innate immune system that normally protects the gut from invasive Enterobacteriaceae, a group of bacteria including E. coli which has been linked to Crohn's disease. The findings were featured in the paper, ‘Psychological stress impairs IL22-driven protective mucosal immunity against colonizing pathobionts’, published in Nature Communications.

Microbial factors that help regulate the function and structural integrity of the enteric nervous system

University of Calgary researchers have discovered specific factors in the workings of the gut that in the future may help improve treatment for patients facing gut damage or gastrointestinal disease. The findings, ‘Intestinal microbiota shapes gut physiology and regulates enteric neurons and glia’, published in Microbiome, from Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases researchers, immediately improves the understanding of factors that help regulate the enteric nervous system, the system of nerves that control the gastrointestinal tract.

FIT screening not suitable for emergency and inpatient settings

A clinical research study from Indiana University School of Medicine and the Regenstrief Institute examines the use, in emergency and inpatient settings of FIT (faecal immunochemical testing), which looks for blood in stool, a possible sign of colorectal cancer. The researchers found that FIT should only be used for its validated indication of colorectal cancer screening and should not be used for evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain or iron deficiency anaemia and other symptoms or problems that bring individuals to the hospital.

Gut infections helps prevent Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

A research team at the Montreal Heart Institute and Université de Montréal has shown that genes present in specific intestinal cells protect against the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. The findings, ‘Functional screen of inflammatory bowel disease genes reveals key epithelial functions’, published in the scientific journal Genome Medicine, show that more than a dozen of these genes, which contribute to the development of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, help fight viral and bacterial infections.