Bowel Cancer UK has announced that it is funding Wales’ first Bowel Cancer Clinical Lead, Professor Jared Torkington, Consultant Colorectal Surgeon at Cardiff and Vale Health Board, via the Wales Cancer Network.
Bowel Cancer UK has announced that it is funding Wales’ first Bowel Cancer Clinical Lead, Professor Jared Torkington, Consultant Colorectal Surgeon at Cardiff and Vale Health Board, via the Wales Cancer Network.
Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer harbouring a subset of non-V600 mutations in the BRAF gene, known as class 3 BRAF mutations, are more likely to respond to anti-EGFR treatment, according to a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
A new American Cancer Society study has reported that colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is increasing exclusively in young adults in nine high-income countries spanning three continents. The study, ‘Global patterns and trends in colorectal cancer incidence in young adults’, appearing in the journal Gut, finds the rising rates are in contrast to stable or declining trends in older adults, suggesting that changes in early-life exposures are increasing CRC risk.
Offering patients the choice between home screening or in-office colonoscopy does not increase participation in colorectal cancer screening, according to a new Penn Medicine study. However, the framing of choice did impact patient decision-making, as the proportion of colonoscopies - the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening - fell when the home screening option was presented as an available option. This study was published in JAMA Network Open.
Researchers at UMass Amherst - examining the impact of frying oil consumption on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer in animal models – have reported that dietary administration of frying oil exaggerated development of IBD and IBD-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice, and these effects could be mediated by the polar compounds in the frying oil.
A team of Johns Hopkins data researchers studying the economic and safety implications associated with disposable colonoscopy devices has that while disposable devices might lead to lower rates of post-colonoscopy infection, institutions that perform the procedure thousands of times per year might better benefit from improved disinfection methods of reusable scopes. The study, ‘The hidden cost of colonoscopy including cost of reprocessing and infection rate: the implications for disposable colonoscopes’, was published in the journal Gut.
Having simple text conversations with patients one week before they are scheduled for a colonoscopy dramatically decreased the ‘no-show’ rates, according to a study conducted by Penn Medicine researchers. Through sending reminders and instruction, opening the door for patients to ask questions, and sharing helpful links, the team increased rate of colonoscopies to 90 percent - well above the 62 percent success rate seen in a group who did not receive this extra communication.
Since the publication of Scotland’s National Endoscopy Action Plan in March 2019 fewer Scottish patients are waiting longer than six weeks for key tests that can diagnose bowel cancer. However, two thirds of Scottish health Boards continue to breach the national standard that patients should be waiting no more than six weeks for a lower GI endoscopy or colonoscopy.
Colorectal cancer outcomes may improve by genetically altering an immune-regulatory protein in cancer cells, making the cells more vulnerable to chemotherapy, according to new Mayo Clinic research. The study, ‘BRAFV600E-induced, tumor intrinsic PD-L1 can regulate chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and in tumor xenografts’, published this month in Oncogene, indicate that increasing the expression of the PD-L1 protein in colorectal cancer cells can improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.
Antibiotic use is linked to a heightened risk of bowel (colon) cancer, but a lower risk of rectal cancer, and depends, to some extent, on the type and class of drug prescribed, according to a study published online in the journal Gut.
The effects of more than 60 minutes of moderate daily physical exercise, such as walking, accumulate throughout life and are associated with a 39 percent reduction in the risk of advanced adenomatous polyps, a precursor of colorectal cancer, the third most frequent type of cancer in Brazil. This is the main finding of an epidemiological study, ‘Physical activity during adolescence and risk of colorectal adenoma later in life: results from the Nurses' Health Study II’, published in the British Journal of Cancer.
Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who engaged in moderate exercise while undergoing chemotherapy tended to have delayed progression of their disease and fewer severe side effects from treatment, according to the results of a study, ‘Associations of Physical Activity With Survival and Progression in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Results From Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/SWOG 80405’, Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have identified a pathway in the immune system activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and which holds promise for investigating new treatments. The research was featured in the paper, ‘TWEAK/Fn14 Is Overexpressed in Crohn's Disease and Mediates Experimental Ileitis by Regulating Critical Innate and Adaptive Immune Pathways’, published in the journal Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation (MOABP) does not reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) or the overall morbidity of colon surgery versus no bowel preparation (NBP), according to a study, ‘Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus no bowel preparation for elective colectomy (MOBILE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, single-blinded trial,’ published in The Lancet.
Taking a daily aspirin for more than two years could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in people with Lynch syndrome, according to new draft guidance from National Institute for health and Care Excellence (NICE), in the UK.
People with the inherited condition have an increased risk of developing a number of different cancers and it is estimated that four in five will develop colorectal cancer during their lifetime.
Fight Colorectal Cancer (Fight CRC), the largest advocacy organisation dedicated to colon and rectal cancers in the US, has published the manuscript, ‘A summary of the Fight Colorectal Cancer working meeting: Exploring risk factors and etiology of sporadic early-age onset colorectal cancer’, has been in the journal Gastroenterology.
Researchers from Switzerland who evaluated the effect of standardised coffee intake on post-operative bowel movement after elective laparoscopic colorectal resection, have reported that patients in the coffee group had faster recovery of bowel function. The key finding of the study, 'Does Coffee Intake Reduce Postoperative Ileus After Laparoscopic Elective Colorectal Surgery?
UT Southwestern researchers have shown that precision editing of the bacterial populations in the gut reduces inflammation-associated colorectal cancer in mice. It is hoped the study could lay the groundwork for novel cancer prevention strategies for individuals with chronic intestinal inflammation. The study, ‘Editing of the gut microbiota reduces carcinogenesis in mouse models of colitis-associated colorectal cancer’, was published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.
Researcher at MIT have devised a material that reduces the risk of tearing the colon during colonoscopies. More than 15 million colonoscopies are performed in the US every year, and in at least 20 percent of those, gastroenterologists end up removing precancerous growths from the colon. To reduce the risk of tearing the colon during this procedure, doctors often inject a saline solution into the space below the lesion, forming a cushion that lifts the polyp so that it's easier to remove safely. However, this cushion does not last long.
A team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have found an association between diet quality and microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa. The researchers found that a high-quality diet is linked to more potentially beneficial bacteria; while a low-quality diet is associated with an increase in potentially harmful bacteria. They propose that modifying the microbiome through diet may be a part of a strategy to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
The incidence of colorectal cancer in adults younger than 50 years of age has increased in the US since 1970. A new study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, found that the proportion of adults diagnosed with colorectal cancer under age 50 in the US has continued to increase over the past decade, and younger adults are diagnosed with more advanced disease.
SurgiMab has announced that the first surgical procedure was carried out in a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of the company's lead product, SGM-101, in a patient with colorectal cancer (CRC). SGM-101 is a tumour-specific antibody conjugated to a dye (fluorophore) that fluoresces under near-infra-red light; it selectively targets a marker on the cancer cell surface known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is overexpressed by more than 95% of colorectal cancer cells.
A team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine has reported an association between diet quality and microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa. The researchers found that a high-quality diet is linked to more potentially beneficial bacteria; while a low-quality diet is associated with an increase in potentially harmful bacteria. They propose that modifying the microbiome through diet may be a part of a strategy to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Researchers from the Molecular Mechanisms and Experimental Therapy in Oncology programme (Oncobell) of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), together with the Biodonostia Health Research Institute (IIS Biodonostia), among others, have published the results of a multi-centre study that unveils a correlation between inflammatory and antioxidant diets and the risk of developing colorectal and breast cancer.
American Cancer Society researchers have found that trends in colonoscopy rates do not fully align with the increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger adults, adding to evidence that the rise in early onset CRC is not solely a result of more detection. The study, ‘Are temporal trends in colonoscopy among young adults concordant with colorectal cancer incidence?’, was published in the Journal of Medical Screening.
Trends in colonoscopy rates did not fully align with the increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger adults, adding to evidence that the rise in early onset CRC is not solely a result of more detection. The study, ‘Are temporal trends in colonoscopy among young adults concordant with colorectal cancer incidence?’ was published in the Journal of Medical Screening.
Check-Cap has announced positive final results from its recently completed post-CE approval study evaluating the clinical performance and safety of the C-Scan system, which according to the company, is the first and only preparation-free capsule based screening method for the prevention of colorectal cancer through the detection of precancerous polyps.
New data have shown for the first time that a combination of targeted therapies can improve survival in patients with advanced bowel cancer. Results of the BEACON CRC Phase III trial have shown that triple therapy targeting BRAF mutations in progressive metastatic colorectal tumours significantly improved overall survival and objective response, compared to standard care.
Scientists at McMaster University have identified new biomarkers for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis. Little is known about the causes of IBS, a chronic and often debilitating gastrointestinal disorder which affects hundreds of thousands of Canadians in which diagnosis is complicated, patients experience a vast spectrum of symptoms and treatment options are limited.
Medical oncologists administer anticancer drug regorafenib to try to improve overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have ceased to respond to standard therapy (known as refractory mCRC). However, some of the adverse events related to the use of this drug often limits its use in clinical practice. A study reported at the ESMO World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer 2019 suggests the usefulness of a more flexible dosing, which improves patients' quality of life without jeopardising efficacy.
A research team from University Hospital Zurich and the University of Oxford have now developed a method to predict the molecular classification of colorectal cancer from digital pathology slides, which provides valuable information about the molecular subtype of the tumour when providing targeted therapy for colorectal carcinoma.
For years, researchers have been trying to target a gene called MYC that is known to drive tumour growth in multiple cancer types when it is mutated or over-expressed, but hitting that target successfully has proven difficult. Now researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania have identified a new pathway that works as a partner to MYC and may be its Achilles' Heel.
Two studies by University of Otago scientists could lead to new treatments for bowel cancer patients. The first study discovered a way to view the immune cell 'landscape' of bowel cancer tumours, paving the way towards more individualised medicine and treatment for many other diseases in future. The second identified unique genetic patterns for four different sub-types of colorectal cancer – which respond differently to a variety of cancer treatments.
Results from the SUNSHINE clinical trial suggest that supplementing chemotherapy with high doses of vitamin D may benefit patients with metastatic colorectal cancer by delaying progression of the disease, according to researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. The findings were reported in the paper, ‘Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer’, published in JAMA.
Using capsules filled with faecal matter from a lean donor, researchers successfully changed some of the composition of the gut microbiota of patients with obesity, a possible step toward a new treatment for weight loss.
Ethicon has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA for its Vistaseal open and laparoscopic Dual Applicators (35cm and 45cm), three next generation airless spray devices that combine biologics with device technology to address mild to moderate surgical bleeding.
In a series of interviews, we will be previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting in Dublin, 1-3 July. We talked to Professor Francois Quenet, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France, who will be presenting the outcomes from Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) at this year’s meeting.
In a series of interviews, we will be previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting in Dublin, 1-3 July. We talked to Professor Ronan O’Connell, Emeritus Professor of Surgery at University College Dublin School of Medicine, and Consultant Surgeon at St Vincent's University Hospital Dublin, Ireland, who discussed what makes a good clinical paper and how they have changed over the years.
Up to 80% of metastatic colorectal cancers are likely to have spread to distant locations in the body before the original tumour has exceeded the size of a poppy seed, according to a study of nearly 3,000 patients by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. The study, ‘Quantitative evidence for early metastatic seeding in colorectal cancer’, was published in Nature Genetics.
Up to 80% of metastatic colorectal cancers are likely to have spread to distant locations in the body before the original tumour has exceeded the size of a poppy seed, according to a study of nearly 3,000 patients by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
In a series of interviews, we will be previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting in Dublin, 1-3 July. We talked to Professor Dion Morton, Professor of Surgery and Director of the University of Birmingham’s Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre (ECMC), who previewed the Research Sessions at this year’s meeting.
Researchers at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center found that identifying a metastatic colorectal cancer patient's Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) could help oncologists determine the most effective course of treatment. CMS also had prognostic value, meaning each subgroup was indicative of a patient's overall survival, regardless of therapy.
One indicator of Crohn's Disease is an abnormal reaction of the immune system to certain bacteria in the intestines and now researchers from the University of Plymouth has had new light shed on it. The research has focused on different types of cells called macrophages, which are part of our immune system and are found in most tissues, where they patrol for potential harmful organisms and destroy them.
Researchers at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center found that identifying a metastatic colorectal cancer patient's Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) could help oncologists determine the most effective course of treatment. CMS also had prognostic value, meaning each subgroup was indicative of a patient's overall survival, regardless of therapy.
A group of researchers from Osaka University have recently reported increases in specific microbiome organisms that are linked to the malignancies associated with colorectal cancer, such as intramucosal carcinomas and polypoid adenomas. Their results, recently published in Nature Medicine Letters, reveal that these specific markers could help distinguish cases of colorectal cancer from healthy samples.
Research by King's College London, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, has reported that the public's perception of constipation differs drastically from that of doctors' and from the formal diagnosis guidelines. The researchers also identified six key sets of symptoms common to both that in the future could form the basis of a new medical definition for constipation.
Results from the first experimental arm using veliparib as part of total neoadjuvant therapy (induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and surgery; TNT) in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma on the NRG Oncology Phase II clinical trial NRG-GI002 is safe and associated with high rates (>90%) of chemotherapy completion.
Early-onset colorectal cancer occurring before age 50 - is rising most rapidly in Western states, where healthy behaviours are prominent, according to a new study, which appears in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The findings, ‘State variation in early-onset colorectal cancer in the United States, 1995-2015, JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute’, indicate the need for further etiologic studies to explore early-life colorectal carcinogenesis.
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting in Chicago aimed to identify factors that may aid in earlier diagnosis and treatment of the disease - the incidence of early onset colorectal cancer has increased nearly 50 percent in the last 30 years.
Bariatric surgery was associated with fewer incidences of new colorectal lesions in patients undergoing bariatric surgery compared with a control group not undergoing bariatric surgery, according to researchers from University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
Gelesis has announced the presentation of data from a clinical study demonstrating that GS500 prototype (GS500/CSP01) provided a significant reduction in colonic transit time (CTT) in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) relative to placebo. The data were presented at Digestive Disease Week 2019, held in San Diego, CA.
The incidence of colon and rectal cancer in adults younger than 50 years has increased substantially over the latest available ten-year period in several high-income countries, going against a decline or stabilisation trend in the incidence of colorectal cancers within the overall populations of high-income countries.
In a series of interviews, we will be previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting in Dublin, 1-3 July. We talked to Dr Per Nilsson, Consultant Colorectal Surgeon and Senior Lecturer at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden and current President of the European Society of Coloproctology, who discussed the benefits and current evidence for ‘Watch and wait’ and surgery for regrowth after neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer.
Foundational research by a City of Hope physician-scientist and his colleagues could one day help metastatic colorectal cancer patients decide whether to choose immunotherapy or chemotherapy as their first treatment option.
Adults who were the most fit had the lowest risk of developing colorectal and lung cancer, and among individuals who developed lung or colorectal cancer, those who had high fitness levels before their cancer diagnosis were less likely to die compared with those who had low fitness levels. The findings, ‘Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Incident Lung and Colon Cancer in Men and Women: Results from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Cancer Cohort’, were published in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.
Starting routine colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 would decrease US cancer deaths by as much as 11,100 over five years, according to a new study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. The move would also decrease the number of cancer cases nationwide by up to 29,400 over that time period. However, screening a greater number of older and high-risk adults would avert nearly three times as many diagnoses and deaths at a lower cost, the study found.
A method that integrates tumour buds, lymphocytic infiltration, and their spatial relationship could better stratify patients with stage 2 colorectal cancer (CRC) at high risk for disease-specific death compared with traditional methods of clinical staging, according to results ‘Automated Analysis of Lymphocytic Infiltration, Tumor Budding, and Their Spatial Relationship Improves Prognostic Accuracy in Colorectal Cancer’, published in Cancer Immunology Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis have found a compound that may treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without directly targeting inflammation. The compound tamps down the activity of a gene linked to blood clotting. They discovered that the gene was turned on at sites of intestinal inflammation and damage, and blocking its activity reduces IBD symptoms in mice. The research was featured in the paper, ‘PAI-1 augments mucosal damage in colitis,’ published in Science Translational Medicine.
Researchers at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine have determined how F. nucleatum - a common oral bacteria often implicated in tooth decay—accelerates the growth of colon cancer. The study, ‘Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes colorectal cancer by inducing Wnt/ß-catenin modulator Annexin A1’, was published online in the journal EMBO Reports.
Researchers at the West Virginia University Cancer Institute are evaluating a first-of-its-kind blood test for detecting colorectal cancer. Their findings may help propel the test toward inclusion in the US Preventive Services Task Force's recommendations for colorectal cancer screening.
The largest study ever to examine why an expensive and commonly used group of drugs fails patients with Crohn's disease has concluded that standardised drug doses are often too low, according to a UK-wide collaboration led by the University of Exeter and the Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust.
Pentax Medical has launched two dedicated electrosurgical and argon plasma coagulation (APC) platforms - the Endo arc and Endo Plus - to its therapeutic accessories range. The launch of these units strengthens Pentax Medical’s integrated endoscopy solutions offering, completing the pathway from screening to diagnostics and into therapeutics.
University of Massachusetts Amherst food science researchers have pinpointed a set of enzymes involved in tumour growth that could be targeted to prevent or treat colon cancer. The study, ‘Targeted metabolomics identifies the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase eicosanoid pathway as a novel therapeutic target of colon tumorigenesis,’ was published in the journal Cancer Research.
A research team evaluating the impact of Medicaid expansion on the rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, incidence, and survival in Kentucky’s low-income population, have found that the number of Medicaid patients who received screening after the expansion was more than triple the number of patients who were screened before the expansion. Additionally, CRC patients relying on Medicaid exhibited improved survival after the expansion compared to before it was implemented. The study.
A study led by Salk Institute scientists suggests that high-fat diets fuel colorectal cancer growth by upsetting the balance of bile acids in the intestine and triggering a hormonal signal that lets potentially cancerous cells thrive. The study, ‘FXR Regulates Intestinal Cancer Stem Cell Proliferation’, which appeared in Cell could explain why colorectal cancer, which can take decades to develop, is being seen in younger people growing up at a time when higher-fat diets are common.
A study by Indiana University School of Medicine and the Regenstrief Institute provides the strongest evidence to date to support recommendations that average risk patients can safely opt for an annual, easy-to-use home stool test instead of a screening colonoscopy, according to the outcomes from a study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
In a series of interviews, we will be previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting in Dublin, 1-3 July. We talked to Mr Brendan Moran, President of the ACPGBI, who highlighted some of the key sessions, presentations and speakers, as well as encouraging those with an interest in coloproctology to attend the meeting.
A team of researchers at University of Saskatchewan (Uask) led by Dr Humphrey Fonge, an assistant professor in the College of Medicine's medical imaging department, has created an assassin antibody with attached radioactive molecules which cling to colorectal cancer cells and destroy them. The assassin antibody kills the colorectal cancer cell by releasing high energy to the DNA of the cell. Current antibody drug therapies can slow down the spread of colorectal cancer, but do not destroy the existing cancer cells.
According to a new statement from a panel of national and international experts in gastroenterology, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other areas, interventional (or therapeutic) IBD endoscopy has an expanding role in the treatment of disease and of adverse events from surgery.
Rare mutations in the NTHL1 gene, previously associated with colorectal cancer, also cause breast cancer and other types of cancer. Researchers from Radboud University Medical Center, Leiden University Medical Center and the Princess Máxima Center in the Netherlands report this new multi-tumor syndrome, in collaboration with international colleagues, in Cancer Cell (‘Mutational Signature Analysis Reveals NTHL1 Deficiency to Cause a Multi-tumor Phenotype’).
Check-Cap has received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval from New York University School of Medicine to initiate a U.S. pilot study of the C-Scan system. According to the company, C-Scan is the first and only preparation-free ingestible scanning capsule for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) through the detection of precancerous polyps.
Researchers from Florida Atlantic University's Schmidt College of Medicine have reported that aspirin is underutilised to prevent colorectal cancer as well as recurrent polyps in high risk patients. Their study, ‘Underutilization of aspirin in patients with advanced colorectal polyps,’ was published in The American Journal of Medicine
Colorectal surgery is a hands-on activity, but in recent years the effectiveness of traditional assessment methods in evaluating surgeons' technical skills has been called into question. A team of collaborators with ties to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, is pioneering the use of virtual reality (VR) technologies to train and objectively evaluate colorectal surgeons without putting any patients at risk. The project is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.
Penn State College of Medicine researchers have reported that some cannabinoid compounds may actually inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in the laboratory. The researchers tested the effects of synthetic cannabinoid compounds on colon cancer cells in an experiment in test tubes. While the compounds most commonly associated with cannabis - THC and CBD - showed little to no effect, ten other compounds were effective at inhibiting cancer cell growth.
A new study, ‘Sedentary Behaviours, TV Viewing Time, and Risk of Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer,’ published in JNCI Cancer Spectrum, has identified a connection between prolonged time spent sitting while watching TV and increased risk of colorectal cancer for younger Americans. These findings are among the first to link specific sedentary behavioural patterns with risk of young-onset colorectal cancer.
The first report from a phase II, multi-centre clinical trial indicates that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy - stereotactic radiation - can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage-IV cancers while maintaining their quality of life. The study, ‘Initial Results of a Multicenter Phase 2 Trial of Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Oligometastatic Cancer,’ was published in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, the scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).
A US$18.8 million, five-year study funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases is assessing three treatment options: medical management, pacemaker to stimulate the sacral nerve and biofeedback. Faecal incontinence, or accidental stool leakage, affects some 8 to 10 percent of the 325 million people in the United States. In up to half of patients, there is both faecal and urinary incontinence.
Researchers from the University of New South Wales have reported that the incidence of bowel cancer, which includes colon and rectal cancer, has increased by up to 9 percent in people under 50 from the 1990s until now. The study, ‘Exposure to Trace Elements and Risk of Skin Cancer: A Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Studies,’ published recently in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention also found bowel cancer incidence is falling in older Australians.
Researchers from the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University have discovered how chronic inflammation of the colon enables cancer. A scientific team led by Dr Kebin Liu has found it turns one more protective mechanism against us and silences another. The research is featured in the paper, ‘Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Produce IL-10 to Elicit DNMT3b-Dependent IRF8 Silencing to Promote Colitis-Associated Colon Tumorigenesis,’ published in Cell Reports.
A large-scale study conducted among East Asians and led by Vanderbilt University researchers has identified multiple, previously unknown genetic risk factors for colorectal cancer. The research paper, ‘Large-scale Genome-wide Association Study of East Asians Identifies Loci Associated With Risk for Colorectal Cancer,’ published in Gastroenterology, is the second largest discovery of novel genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer in a single study published to date.
Johns Hopkins researchers have identified a protein involved in cell proliferation and the development of new blood vessels that could serve as a marker for the early detection of colorectal cancers. The paper, ‘Lactosylceramide synthase β-1,4-GalT-V: A novel target for the diagnosis and therapy of human colorectal cancer,’ was published in the journal, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.
New research suggests that exercise is a key factor in reducing colorectal cancer risk after weight loss. According to the study, physical activity causes beneficial changes in the bone marrow. The study, ‘Effects of obesity and exercise on colon cancer induction and hematopoiesis in mice,’ was published in the journal American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens are becoming less effective at preventing surgical site infections following colorectal surgery, according to researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy and Princeton University determined through a systematic review of available literature.
A new study conducted in adult and paediatric patients with Crohn's disease, led by UNC School of Medicine researchers and published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight, has found that a set of biomolecules known as microRNAs, specifically microRNA-31 (miR-31), can help predict which patients with Crohn's disease are at higher risk for the development of severe problems that may require surgical removal of the large intestine.
Traditional laxatives are recommended as first-line agents to treat patients with a confirmed diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation (OIC), according to a new guidelines, ‘American Gastroenterological Association Institute Guideline on the Medical Management of Opioid-Induced Constipation,’ published in the journal Gastroenterology, from the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA).
Bowel Cancer UK has handed in an open letter to the to the UK government calling for a fully funded action plan to tackle NHS staff shortages in diagnostic services for bowel cancer – England’s second biggest cancer killer. The letter comes ahead of the Government spending review and calls on the Chancellor and Health Secretary to invest in more NHS staff to cope with the rising demand for bowel cancer tests.
Women who are overweight or have obesity have up to twice the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) before age 50 as women who have what is considered a ‘normal’ BMI, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis.
A new study shows that two inflammatory proteins in the colon increase in parallel with increasing weight in humans. An incremental rise in these pro-inflammatory proteins (called cytokines) was observed along the entire spectrum of subjects' weights, which extended from lean to obese individuals. In participants with obesity, there was evidence that two pre-cancerous cellular pathways known to be triggered by these cytokines were also activated.
European Society for Coloproctology (ESCP) has announced it is establishing additional cohort studies on robotic colorectal surgery, the management of acute severe Ulcerative Colitis and parastomal hernia repair in 2019. The ESCP has previously undertaken a major international audit of colorectal operations to understand which are most widely used techniques across the world, which appear to be associated with the best outcomes and where further research needs to be undertaken.
A new study by the group of Professor Alison Simmons at the MRC Human Immunology Unit based in the MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK, paves the way for better treatments for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) by providing the first detailed single cell resolution analysis of colon cells in health and disease.
There are many studies that have demonstrated a connection between obesity and a person's risk of developing colon and other gastrointestinal cancers, and scientists at the Huntsman Cancer Institute's National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Cente are investigating approaches that can break this relationship.
The European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP) has announced the winner of its best abstract research paper as ‘Therapy refractory ulcerative colitis patients may benefit from appendectomy’ by Dr Merle Stellingwerf and colleagues at its 13th Annual Conference in Nice, France. Merle Stellingwerf was confirmed as the winner on the back of her presentation at the ‘Six Best Papers’ session at the event which is attended and voted on by specialists from across Europe.
The European Society of Coloproctologists (ESCP) has awarded the Lars Påhlman EBSQ medal to Dr Nuri Okkabaz from Bağcılar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Nuri Okkabaz was awarded the Lars Påhlman medal at the 2018 ESCP meeting after obtaining the highest score in the 2017 European Board of Surgery Qualification (EBSQ) exam, during a ceremony at the ESCP’s annual meeting in France 2018.
The European Society of Coloproctology’s (ESCP) Education Committee has launched a new training school to help surgeons continue their professional education and development in the latest techniques of their field - the European School of Coloproctology (ESC). The School will offer a series of training courses in topics such as laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision and creation of continent pouches and continent ileostomies.
New research showing that the first bacteria introduced into the gut have a lasting impact may one day allow science to adjust microbiomes - the one-of-a-kind microbial communities that live in our gastrointestinal tracts - to help ward off serious chronic diseases. The discovery sheds new light on how these microbiomes, which are as personal as fingerprints, establish themselves and what drives their unique nature.
Researchers at Technical University Munich have reported colon cancer is caused by bacteria and cell stress, more specifically activated transcription factor ATF6 and that chronic inflammation has no effect on cancer development in the colon. It was known that ATF6 regulates stress in cells, and the intensity and duration of activation is increased with diseases. In this latest study, ATF6 incidence was found to be increased in colon cancer patients.
Researchers from the University of Luxembourg have discovered a molecular mechanism that is responsible for the spread of cancer cells in the body and the development of metastases in patients with colon cancer. Their findings could help to develop treatments that inhibit tumour growth.
A new nuclear medicine imaging method could help diagnose widespread tumours, such as breast, colon, pancreas, lung and head and neck cancer better than current methods, with less inconvenience to patients and with equal or improved accuracy, according to researchers from the University Hospital of Heidelberg and at the German Cancer Research Center. The paper, ‘A Tumor-Imaging Method Targeting Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts’, was published in Journal of Nuclear Medicine
New research suggests that probiotics might not be as effective as we think. Through a series of experiments looking inside the human gut, researchers found that many people's digestive tracts prevent standard probiotics from successfully colonising them. Furthermore, taking probiotics to counterbalance antibiotics could delay the return of normal gut bacteria and gut gene expression to their naïve state. The research publishes as two back-to-back papers in the journal Cell.
A new study carried out by a team led by Professor Heiko Hermeking at the Institute of Pathology at LMU (and German Cancer Consortium) shows that the regulatory protein c-MYC, which plays an important role in promoting the development of many types of tumours, induces the production of a transcription factor that increases the numbers of stem cells in the intestinal epithelium, and thereby contributes to the formation of adenomas in the colon.
Chromosomal catastrophes have been found to occur along the evolutionary timeline of colorectal cancer development, according to new research led by Queen Mary University of London. The paper, 'The evolutionary landscape of colorectal tumorigenesis', published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, compared the genetics of benign and cancerous bowel tumours and revealed that the benign growths were more heterogeneous than the cancerous tumours.
Abivax has announced topline results from its Phase 2a clinical trial, ABX464-101, conducted in 32 patients for induction treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC), refractory to anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies or corticosteroids. In summary, the topline data indicate that ABX464 was safe, well-tolerated, and demonstrated statistically significant efficacy based on both clinical and endoscopic endpoints in this study.
A team of researchers from UK and US has developed a way to use artificial intelligence to predict how cancer might change and spread in patients. Over many years of cancer research, scientists have discovered that tumours actually evolve, allowing them to change their form and the way they spread.
Preemptive pain medication is safe and reduces pain in the early postoperative period for patients undergoing anorectal surgery (ARS), according to a study published in the journal of Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. The researchers found that patients in the active group had significantly less pain in the post-anaesthesia care unit and at eight hours postoperatively. Furthermore, significantly fewer participants in the active group used narcotics in the post-anaesthesia care unit and at eight hours postoperatively.
An evolutionary model utilising serial blood samples from patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR therapies in a phase II trial could predict personalised waiting time for progression.
Many patients with colon cancer do not need any chemotherapy and in those patients who benefit from chemotherapy it does not have to be as intense for everyone, according to a new study from Uppsala University.
A team of researchers from Queen Mary University of London have reported the genetic events involved in the early development of bowel cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Such knowledge may be able to be exploited to design simple diagnostic tests to stratify patients with IBD at high risk of developing cancer.
By genetically manipulating and removing the most common mutant form of the p53 gene that promotes colorectal cancer in humans, an international team of scientists has demonstrated that this therapy reduces tumour growth and tissue invasion. The research was led by Dr Ute Moll, Professor and cancer biologist in the Department of Pathology at Stony Brook University School of Medicine, the findings published in Cancer Cell.
Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, in collaboration with colleagues from the National Cancer Institute and elsewhere, have shown that in many cancers a patient's nitrogen metabolism is altered, producing detectable changes in the body fluids and contributing to the emergence of new mutations in cancerous tissue. The study, ‘Urea Cycle Dysregulation Generates Clinically Relevant Genomic and Biochemical Signatures,’ published in Cell, may in the future facilitate early detection of cancer and help predict the success of immunotherapy.
Chemicals produced by vegetables such as kale, cabbage and broccoli could help to maintain a healthy gut and prevent colon cancer, according to a study from the Francis Crick Institute shows. The research, ‘The Environmental Sensor AHR Protects from Inflammatory Damage by Maintaining Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis and Barrier Integrity’, published in Immunity, shows that mice fed on a diet rich in indole-3-carbinol, which is produced when we digest vegetables from the Brassica genus, were protected from gut inflammation and colon cancer.
Ludwig Cancer Research and the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) have announced the initiation of a clinical trial to evaluate the combination of ONCOS-102, an experimental anti-tumour virotherapy, with the checkpoint blockade antibody IMFINZI (durvalumab) for advanced ovarian and colorectal cancers.
As many as 50 percent of human cancer cases, across a wide variety of tissues, involve defects in a common cellular growth signalling pathway. These defects have so far defied most attempts to develop targeted therapies, leading some in the field to conclude that they may be ‘undruggable’. Now researchers at UC San Francisco and Redwood City-based Revolution Medicines, have identified a new strategy for potentially treating a subset of such intractable cancers by decoupling the entire RAS/MAP Kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway from external growth signals.
An innovative programme in community health centres to mail free colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests to patients' homes results in a nearly 4 percentage point increase in CRC screening, compared to clinics without the programme, according to a Kaiser Permanente study, ‘Effectiveness of a Mailed Colorectal Cancer Screening Outreach Program in Community Health Clinics’, published in JAMA Internal Medicine.
Kaiser Permanente members in Northern California are 52 percent less likely to die from colorectal cancer since the health care system launched a comprehensive, organised screening program, according to a study, ‘Effects of Organized Colorectal Cancer Screening on Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Large, Community-based Population,’ published in Gastroenterology.
An analysis examining the impact of bariatric surgery on cancer has indicated that bariatric surgery may affect an individual's risk of developing cancer, although the researchers note that additional studies are needed to understand the biological mechanisms behind these findings.
Inhibiting the Jagged 1 protein in mice prevents the proliferation and growth of colon and rectal tumours, according to a study led by the Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer and Stem Cells research group from the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), directed by Dr Lluís Espinosa, who is also a member of CIBERONC (the Network Centre for Biomedical Research into Cancer), in collaboration with the Pathological Anatomy and Medical Oncology Units at Hospital del Mar, and the IDIBELL-Catalan Oncology Institute.
Patients with colorectal cancer tumours on the right side may have poorer five-year survival rates than those whose tumours are located on the left side. However, the large-scale retrospective study is the first to demonstrate a potential improvement of these outcomes.
Individuals younger than 50 years of age who are diagnosed with rectal cancer do not experience an overall survival benefit from currently recommended treatments, according to the study, ‘Rectal cancer patients under 50 years of age lack a survival benefit from NCCN guideline-directed treatment for stage II and III disease’, published in Cancer - a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.
Two pre-surgery checklists from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Strong for Surgery (S4S) program that incorporate best practices for engaging patients in preparing for their upcoming operations, significantly improved lifestyle factors that pose an increased risk for postoperative complications or help support healing and postoperative recovery.
A novel nuclear medicine approach is showing great promise for precision treatment of solid tumours in many types of cancer including lung, breast, pancreas and ovarian in adults and glioma, neuroblastoma and sarcoma in children. The research was presented at the SNMMI 2018 Annual Meeting, June 23-26 in Philadelphia.
Patients younger than 50 years of age who are diagnosed with rectal cancer do not experience an overall survival benefit from currently recommended treatments, suggesting that early onset disease may differ from later onset disease in terms of biology and response to therapy, according to a study published in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.
A study authored by scientists from the American Cancer Society, the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, the US National Cancer Institute, and more than 20 other medical centres and organisations has reported that higher circulating vitamin D concentrations are significantly associated with lower colorectal cancer risk. This study strengthens the evidence, previously considered inconclusive, for a protective relationship.
A novel nuclear medicine approach is showing great promise for precision treatment of solid tumours in many types of cancer including colorectal cancer, lung, breast, pancreas and ovarian in adults and glioma, neuroblastoma and sarcoma in children. The research was presented at the SNMMI 2018 Annual Meeting, June 23-26 in Philadelphia.
The first report outcomes form the International Watch & Wait Database (IWWD) has report that local regrowth occurs mostly in the first two years and in the bowel wall, “emphasising the importance of endoscopic surveillance to ensure the option of deferred curative surgery.” The paper, ‘Long-term outcomes of clinical complete responders after neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer in the International Watch & Wait Database (IWWD): an international multicentre registry study’, published in The Lancet, was written on behalf of the WWD Consortium.
The first comprehensive study comparing the outcomes of robotic surgery to those of traditional open surgery in any organ has found that the surgeries are equally effective in treating bladder cancer.
A new analysis of a large, international audit undertaken by the European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP) in 2015, which examined the role of technical factors on the healing of the join in the bowel following operations on the right side of the colon, found that neither the choice of type of stapler (cutting or non-cutting), nor over-sewing of the staple line affected the rate of leakage. However, having the surgery performed by a general surgeon vs colorectal surgeon was associated with an increased risk of leak (12.1% versus 7.3%).
In accordance with the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) does not intend to change its recommendations for colorectal cancer screening based on the recent change in the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline.
Researchers at the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand, have identified a toxic bacteria they believe may cause bowel cancer and could lead to a life-saving vaccine or early detection test for the too-often deadly disease. The study investigators found a toxic form of a bacteria called Bacteroides fragilis in the gut of almost 80 per cent of people with a pre-cancerous lesion – a precursor to the disease.
Intravenous (IV) acetaminophen is no more effective than oral acetaminophen for patients undergoing colorectal procedures, according to researchers from Mount Sinai. In a first-of-its-kind study, the findings suggest that eliminating use of IV acetaminophen, which is much more expensive than its oral counterpart, may result in very significant cost savings for hospitals with no impact on the patient experience or outcomes.
In a series of interviews, we will be previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting in Birmingham, 9-11 July. We talked to Professor Angus Watson (Consultant General and Colorectal Surgeon at Raigmore hospital, Inverness and Director of Research, Development & innovation for NHS Highland) who will be organising a session on the influence of information technology on colorectal practice and how it can be harnessed to improve research, as well as outcomes for patients.
Continuing our series of interviews previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting, 9-11 July, we talked to Mr Andrew Williams (Consultant Colorectal Pelvic Floor Surgeon at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK) who highlighted some of the key topics under discussion during the Pelvic Floor sessions in Birmingham.
Continuing our series of interviews previewing this year’s ACPGBI annual meeting, 9-11 July, we talked to Mr Austin Acheson (Consultant Colorectal Surgeon at Nottingham University Hospital, UK and Chair of ACPGBI Research and Audit Committee) who highlighted some of the key topics under discussion during the Research Sessions in Birmingham.
Putting nurses in charge of colorectal cancer surveillance instead of doctors has shown to reduce the number of unnecessary colonoscopies and the number of cases progressing to cancer, according to a South Australian audit. The researchers examined 732 colonoscopies over three months in 2015 found that 97 per cent of procedures adhered to Australian guidelines in the nurse-led model, compared with compliance of just 83 per cent physician-led surveillance model.
Higher circulating vitamin D concentrations are significantly associated with lower colorectal cancer risk, according to a study by scientists from the American Cancer Society, the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, the US National Cancer Institute, and more than 20 other medical centres and organisations.
Increasing the number of follow-up tests for patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer does not result in a significant rate reduction in five-year overall mortality or colorectal cancer–specific mortality, according to the results from the COLOFOL randomised clinical trial. Trial researchers in Sweden, Denmark and Uruguay reported that follow-up testing with computed tomography (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen more frequently vs less frequently offered no benefit.
Pentax Medical has entered into an agreement with Avantis Medical Systems to distribute through its US salesforce, the Avantis Third Eye Panoramic device, a wide-angle visualisation tool that significantly expands the view obtained from traditional colonoscopes during screenings for colon cancer.
Lifestyle-related cancers, such as lung, colorectal and skin cancers, have increased globally over the past decade, according to the most comprehensive analysis of cancer-related health outcomes and patterns ever conducted.
People diagnosed with advanced colon cancer pay twice more per month for treatment in the US than in Canada but do not live any longer, according to research presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) conference in Chicago, IL.
Intuitive Surgical has gained FDA clearance for the da Vinci SP surgical system for urologic surgical procedures that are appropriate for a single port approach. Intuitive’s da Vinci SP surgical system for urologic surgical procedures that are appropriate for a single port approach. The da Vinci SP system provides surgeons with robotic-assisted technology designed for deep and narrow access to tissue in the body. The ability to enter the body through a single, small incision helps surgeons perform more complex procedures.
Scientists have developed a swallowed capsule packed with tiny electronics and millions of genetically engineered living cells that might someday be used to spot health problems from inside the gut. The capsule was tested in pigs and correctly detected signs of bleeding researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology report in the journal Science, suggesting the capsule could eventually be used in people to find signs of ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease or even colon cancer.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) has released an updated guideline for colorectal cancer screening. Among the major guideline changes, the new recommendations state screening should begin at age 45 for people at average risk. Previously, the guideline recommended screening begin at age 50 for people at average risk. The recommendations for screening test options are also part of the guideline changes.
Scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have applied a chemical found in soybeans to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and increased its anticancer properties and reduced its side effects. Findings of the preclinical study of phosphatidylcholine (also called lecithin), 'Chemoprevention with phosphatidycholine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in vivo and in vitro', was published in Oncology Letters.
Ingestion of a blue dye tablet during bowel prep for colonoscopy could be a significant advance in the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), according to research to be presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2018. Study researchers from Humanitas University Medical School in Milan, Italy, found that when used in conjunction with colonoscopy, the blue dye increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) by nearly 9 percent.
For the first time in humans, researchers will test a two-pronged approach to treat advanced stage colorectal cancer (CRC), potentially increasing life expectancy. Combining a DNA vaccine, which boosts the body's immune response against tumours, with an antibody that blocks the body's natural defence against the potency of the DNA vaccine, may lead to the development of an effective treatment for late stage CRC, when a cure is not often possible. Preliminary research leading up to this trial will be presented at Digestive Disease Week 2018 in June.
A US retrospective study led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found no association between intensity of post-treatment surveillance and detection of recurrence or overall survival (OS) in patients with stage I, II or III colorectal cancer (CRC). Published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the study is the largest of surveillance intensity in CRC ever conducted.
A novel light therapy is being investigated as an alternative to prescription drugs to relieve chronic constipation and other intestinal disorders which affect millions of patients around the world. Researchers at Flinders University and Washington University have found a "significant technical breakthrough" in a new light and optogenetics technique which has the potential to replace drugs as a less toxic remedy to debilitating gastrointestinal conditions.
Researchers have identified a correlation between gut microbial composition and microRNA expression in human colorectal cancer, according to a study published in the journal mSystems. The study is the first to demonstrate that the interaction between microRNA and the gut microbiome may play a role in colorectal cancer.
“The opportunity that randomised controlled trials provide is high quality evidence that will impact directly on clinical practice. Surgery as a whole has been slow to develop evidenced-based medicine and has perhaps disadvantaged patients as a consequence, because the evidence has been insufficient to institute advances in a timely fashion,” Professor Dion Morton explained.
There is no evidence that publishing patient death rates for individual bowel surgeons in England has led to risk averse behaviour or 'gaming' of data, according to a published by The BMJ. In fact, the results show that the introduction of public reporting of individual surgeons' outcomes coincided with a substantial reduction in mortality for patients having non-emergency bowel cancer surgery.
Researchers have identified a new molecular mechanism to explain the link between obesity and increased risk of colon inflammation, which is a major risk factor in colorectal cancer. The research team, which includes scientists at the University of California Davis, suggest for the first time that inhibiting an enzyme known as soluble epoxide hydrolase, sHE, may abolish this risk of obesity-induced colonic inflammation, say Zhang and colleagues.
An analysis of electronic medical records indicates that patients who previously had a false-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test are more likely to obtain future recommended cancer screenings. Published Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study, ‘Implications of false‐positive results for future cancer screenings’ suggests that false-positives may be reminders to screen for cancer.
Offering sigmoidoscopy screening to men and women in Norway reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in men, but had little or no effect in women, suggesting that current guidelines recommending that women get screened for CRC with flexible sigmoidoscopy should be reconsidered. The results from the randomised trial were published in the paper, ‘Long-Term Effectiveness of Sigmoidoscopy Screening on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Women and Men: A Randomized Trial’, in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Researchers at Boston Medical Center, in collaboration with Northwestern University, are using nanocytology imaging technology to create an effective and inexpensive way to screen for colorectal cancer among young adults. Developed by Dr Vadim Backman at Northwestern, nanocytology, allows scientists to visualise particles much smaller than a normal microscope and identify cancer risk markers accurately. The test will be low-cost and can be performed in a primary care setting.
“The aim of this year’s ACPGBI meeting is to have a programme designed to appeal to everyone – from areas looking at standards of practice within our day-to-day colorectal lives to more controversial areas of clinical practice such as how we can improve the management of more advanced cases of colonic cancer,” he explained. “We will concentrate on whether we need to change current practice – for example in the case of parastomal hernias – and we will examine the current evidence and ask whether treatment paradigms need to change.
Colon polyps from patients with Lynch syndrome, a hereditary condition that raises colorectal cancer risk, display immune system activation well before cancer development, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The preclinical research challenges traditional models of cancer immune activation and suggests immunotherapy may be useful for colorectal cancer prevention in certain high-risk groups.
Researchers from New Zealand have for the first time identified unique genetic patterns for four different sub-types of colorectal cancer, which respond differently to a variety of cancer treatments. The findings could mean in future clinicians can personalise treatment to people with different forms of the disease.
Interim results from VolitionRx’s first asymptomatic colorectal cancer (CRC) frontline screening study assessing it’s Nu.Q panel, demonstrated that a small panel of three ELISA assays, when considered with the subjects' ages and smoking histories, produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 83% and was able to detect 80% of Stage I CRC cases and 66% of High-Risk Adenomas (HRA) at 78% specificity, respectively.
Researchers from Queen's University Belfast have demonstrated for the first time how molecular analysis of clinical trial biopsy samples can be used to help clinicians identify the key changes that occur in an individual patient's bowel (colorectal) tumour prior to surgery, so clinicians can better understand and treat the disease. It is thought that this 'personalised medicine' approach could ultimately improve the prognosis and quality of life for bowel cancer patients.
A new risk-prediction model, built by researchers at the University of Michigan and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Fred Hutch) in Seattle and colleagues, assesses the impact of environment and genetic factors on the development of colorectal cancer. The researchers calculated the combined risk from 19 lifestyle and environmental factors and 63 genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer. Current guidelines recommend initial screening at age 50 unless someone has a family history of colorectal cancer.
The European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP) has confirmed its dedication to furthering the prevention, treatment, education and research into colorectal disease by expanding its research committee.
The three additional specialists joining the research committee are:
RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland) is leading an international team of scientists on a major research study, COLOSSUS, which aims to provide new and more effective ways to classify and treat patients with colorectal cancer. The project will focus on colorectal cancer that has spread from the colon to other parts of the body (metastatic colorectal cancer, mCRC).
A retrospective study assessing postoperative pain scores and analgesia requirements after single port and multi-port laparoscopic ileocaecal resection (ICR) for Crohn's disease, has reported that the single port procedure is associated with less pain and a reduction in opioid analgesia compared with the standard multi-port ICR procedure. The paper, ‘Single port laparoscopic ileocaecal resection for Crohn's disease: a multicentre comparison with multi-port laparoscopy’, was published in Colorectal Disease.
The St Gallen Colorectal Consensus Expert Group, consisting of 37 colorectal surgeons from 20 countries and five continents (Europe, Asia, North and South America, Australasia) and a radiologist, pathologist and medical oncologist, have published a broad international consensus statement for the optimal practice of transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME). The statement provides guidance on the safe implementation of, and how to avoid the pitfalls and potential major morbidity encountered by, the procedure.
Researchers at UC San Francisco have found a way to attack one of the most common drivers of lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer by targeting the proteins it produces on the outside of the cell. The study, ‘Targeting RAS driven human cancer cells with antibodies to upregulated and essential cell-surface proteins’, published in the journal eLife, reveals that cancer-causing mutations in RAS, a family of genes found in all animal cell types, creates tell-tale changes in a community of proteins on the surface of cancer cells.
A report led by Professor Mark Lawler, Chair in Translational Cancer Genomics at Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, plans to end bowel cancer, the second most common cause of cancer death in Europe. The report, ‘Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer’, was published in the January edition of the journal Gut.
Using patient tumour grafts with metformin, a common diabetes drug, might help fight colorectal cancer in humans, according to researchers from A*STAR's Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN), the Biological Resource Centre, and the Genome Institute of Singapore, with collaborators from hospitals across Singapore.
Researchers from the University of Luxembourg found a new biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) that might improve therapy and survival rates of patients. In a study supported by the Fondation Cancer and the Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR), an interdisciplinary team composed of experimental and computational scientists from the Molecular Disease Mechanisms (MDM) group at the Life Sciences Research Unit of the University of Luxembourg has recently discovered a new promising biomarker for colorectal cancer.
A research team of Information and Communication Engineering at Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) has developed the world's first multimodal biomicroscopic system to analyse the characteristics of tumours and to utilise them in tumour treatment technology research. The imaging system accurately analyses the characteristics of tumours using the mechanical, chemical, and structural properties of colorectal cancer. It is the result of a collaboration with the research team of Eunjoo Kim from the Department of Nano & Energy Research.
The efficacy and safety of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) placement for malignant rectal obstruction are comparable to those for left colonic obstruction, according to researchers from Yonsei University College of Medicine and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
A pilot study examining to the utility of the hashtag #colorectalsurgery in promoting a specialty-specific forum to increase discussion and science among coloproctologists, has concluded that #colorectalsurgery is an innovative method for bridging barriers and strengthening collaboration among global coloproctologists.
The most comprehensive genome-wide association study, or GWAS, of colorectal cancer risk to date has discovered 40 new genetic variants and validated 55 previously identified variants that signal an increased risk of colon cancer. The paper, ‘Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer,’ was published Nature Genetics.
It is well known that cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, with pockets of human populations and geographical locations seemingly at higher risk than others, and that populations living in very low temperatures, like in Denmark and Norway, had among the highest incidences of cancer in the world.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded a collaborative five-year $2.6 million grant to create innovative models of colorectal cancer that will enhance understanding of how the disease develops and spreads. This grant — a collaboration between Cleveland Clinic, Duke University and Cornell University — is the newest project funded by NCI’s Cancer Tissue Engineering Collaborative (TEC) Research Program. The programme supports the development and characterisation of state-of-the-art tissue engineered technologies for cancer research.
The first ever National Audit of Small Bowel Obstruction (NASBO) has published six key recommendations for improving standard care, the results will be a vital resource for the development of NHS guidelines and future research work. Small bowel obstruction is an enormous burden on NHS resources, accounting for up to 50% of emergency abdominal surgeries performed in the UK every year, with 13% of these patients dying within three months. NASBO’s findings showed average hospital stays of ten days, with 13% of discharged patients re-admitted within 30 days.
Rising rates of opioid prescriptions have been linked to the opioid epidemic, and a significant number of opioid deaths have been linked to prescriptions written by surgeons. However, a study has suggested that a more vigilant prescribing guideline for surgeons could reduce the number of opioid pills prescribed after operations by up to 40 percent and still meet patients' pain management needs. The study, ‘A Guideline for Discharge Opioid Prescriptions after Inpatient General Surgical Procedures’, was published in Journal of the American College of Surgeons.
More than a third (34 percent) of women with bowel cancer in England were diagnosed after an emergency hospital visit, compared to less than a third of men (30 percent), despite women having more red flag symptoms and more visits to their GP, according to research presented at the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference in Liverpool, UK.
If diagnosed after an emergency hospital visit, patients are more likely to have poorer survival as the disease is usually at an advanced stage.
Research at the University of Plymouth has led to the creation a new website to help families at a high risk of bowel cancer. The website - www.familyweb.org.uk - was designed by PhD student Selina Goodman to enable families to share vital information about their genetic diagnosis with other family members and health professionals. Funded by local charity Bowel Cancer West and approved by the NHS, the website could help thousands of people – with 40,000 new cases of the disease diagnosed every year.
A team of researchers working at Harvard University has found evidence that suggests a certain type of bacteria found in colon cancer tumours makes its way to tumours in other body parts by traveling with the metastasizing cells. In their paper, ‘Analysis of Fusobacteriumpersistence and antibiotic response in colorectal cancer’, published in the journal Science, the group describes their study of the bacteria and its possible link to being a cause of colon cancer.
An American Cancer Society (ACS) programme has been effective in promoting improvements in colorectal cancer screening rates in federally qualified health centres (FQHCs) and could have implications for broader public health efforts to increase cancer prevention and screening, according to a study published online in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
A doctoral candidate in mechanical and materials engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has designed a robotic alternative to the traditional colonoscope that physicians use when searching for pre-cancerous or cancerous polyps that can line the large intestine. According to the developer, Hossein Dehghani, he robot could help make the colonoscopy a painless and less costly procedure.
“Imagine a robot that deforms itself instead of deforming the colon,” said Dehghani, who designed the prototype as part of his dissertation. “That would decrease the pain significantly.”
A long-term study on the treatment of anal fistulas conducted on 117 patients with an average follow-up period of 25.4 months (overall study duration of 6–60 months) confirms a primary success rate of 64.1% from initial therapy using FiLaC. The secondary cure rate (a second smaller procedure) was as high as 85.5%.
Poor patient outcomes are common after planned (elective) in-patient surgery and that mortality rates following complications are at broadly similar levels in the poorest and wealthiest countries although patient populations may differ, according to a paper, ‘Global patient outcomes after elective surgery: prospective cohort study in 27 low-, middle- and high-income countries,’ published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia by the International Surgical Outcomes Study Group.
The absence of inflammatory and ulcerative lesions in all segments of the colon – or mucosal healing - should be the end goal in treating patients with ulcerative colitis according to an editorial, ‘Zeroing in on endoscopic and histologic mucosal healing to reduce the risk of colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease,’ published in the journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
A single protein from a worm parasite may offer new therapeutic options for treating inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's Disease or ulcerative colitis, that avoid the potentially serious side effects of current immunosuppressant medications. The study, 'A structurally distinct TGF-β mimic from an intestinal helminth parasite potently induces regulatory T cells,' is published in Nature Communications,’ published in Nature Communications, demonstrates the discovery of a distinct new worm protein which mimics a cytokine found in humans, known as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β).
Women with stronger social networks had better survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, according to researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital. Study lead, Dr Ying Bao, an epidemiologist in BWH's Channing Division of Network Medicine and Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School, concluded that social network strengthening could be a useful tool for management of colorectal cancer.
A randomised trial in 650 patients has confirmed the safety and efficacy of a new second line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer, according to a study reported at the ESMO Asia 2017 Congress.
Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) should begin at 45 years of age to match rising mortality rates in young adults, according to research presented at the 25th UEG Week Barcelona. CRC is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Europe, killing 215,000 Europeans every year, with research recently revealing that three in ten CRC diagnoses are now among people younger than 55.
Researchers from the University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea, have identified links not only between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but also to cancers outside the liver, including colorectal and breast cancer. The study, ‘Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer incidence rate,’ was published in the Journal of Hepatology,
Cancer cells consume exorbitant amounts of glucose, a key source of energy, and shutting down this glucose consumption has long been considered a logical therapeutic strategy. However, good pharmacological targets to stop cancers' ability to uptake and metabolise glucose are missing. In a new study published in Cell Reports, a team of University of Colorado Cancer Center researchers, led by Drs Matthew Galbraith and Joaquin Espinosa, finally identifies a way to restrict the ability of cancer to use glucose for energy.
People treated for non-metastatic colon cancer who added 5 grams of fibre to their diet reduced their odds of dying by nearly 25 percent, according to a study by researchers from the department of medicine at Harvard Medical School.
"What you eat after you've been diagnosed may make a difference," said associate professor, Dr Andrew Chan. "There is a possibility that increasing your intake of fibre may actually lower the rate of dying from colon cancer and maybe even other causes."
A new, three-step system that uses nuclear medicine to target and eliminate colorectal cancer has been developed by researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston. In a mouse study, the researchers achieved a 100% cure rate - without any treatment-related toxic effects.
BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) proposed US$24 billion acquisition of CR Bard has been approved by the European Commission, contingent on BD divesting its soft tissue core needle biopsy product line. The agreement has been unanimously approved by the Boards of Directors of both companies. The combination will create a highly differentiated medical technology company ‘uniquely’ positioned to improve both the process of care and the treatment of disease for patients and healthcare providers, the companies announced.
Combining oral antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is associated with a significant reduced rate of surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing elective left colon and rectal cancer resections, according to a study published in JAMA Surgery.
A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified a potential strategy for improving the efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors, drugs that help fight cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels. In a follow-up to a study published earlier this year that discovered how anti-angiogenesis treatment can interfere with the immune response against colorectal cancer, the team now describes another pathway that induces an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, one that can be blocked with an FDA-approved drug.
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute have discovered a new drug target for bowel cancer that is specific to tumour cells and therefore less toxic than conventional therapies. Most bowel cancers are caused by a mutation in a gene called APC that in its healthy form acts to prevent cancer formation. Mutated APC genes cause excess activity of a cell signalling pathway called 'Wnt', which has been associated with bowel cancer for over 20 years.
Most colorectal cancer develops from precursors known as polyps, the most common and well researched of which are conventional adenomas. Conventional adenomas often progress to colorectal cancer through an intermediate step called high-risk adenomas. Another type of polyp known as serrated polyps, may precede up to 15% of colorectal cancer. Serrated polyps may occur in up to 20% of all adults over 50 years of age, however, when it comes to progression to colorectal cancer, less is known about serrated polyps than conventional adenomas.
For decades, researchers have tried unsuccessfully to directly target mutant KRAS proteins as a means to treat tumours. Instead of targeting mutant KRAS itself, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine are now looking for other genes or molecules that, when inhibited, kill cancer cells only when KRAS is also mutated.
An international audit undertaken by the European Society of Coloproctologists (ESCP) and Surgeons of European Crohn’s & Colitis Organisation (S-ECCO) underlines the importance of close cooperation between gastroenterologists and IBD surgeons to identify Crohn’s patients who need surgical intervention. The study predicts that this collaborative approach will reduce the number of urgent operations and therefore allow patient-tailored and timely pre-operative optimisation.
Interventions, such as patient navigators and provider reminders, may improve follow-up colonoscopy rates after a positive faecal blood test, according to the findings from a systematic evidence review published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
An experimental device that employs a pair of magnets offers surgeons a new safe and simple alternative to standard methods for creating an anastomosis for the first time in nearly 50 years. In its first proof-of-concept clinical trial in humans, the device was easy for surgeons to use, even with patients who required complicated surgical reconstruction. It also was safe; none of the patients had any complications related to the use of the device or the anastomosis it fashioned.
A study by Osaka University researchers has found that non-labelling multiphoton microscopy (NL-MPM) can be used for quantitative imaging of cancer that is safe and requires no resection, fixation or staining of tissues. Professor Masaru Ishii and his team of scientists have been exploring non-labelling microscopy methods as a means to observe and diagnose the cancer while preserving as much information as possible.
ConvaTec has introduced the GentleCath Glide, an intermittent catheter developed to provide simple, convenient hydrophilic catheterisation for daily users, in Europe. The availability of GentleCath Glide in European markets follows its launch in the US earlier this year, and will be supported by the roll out of the me+ programme for continence care, an extension of the company’s direct-to-consumer programme in ostomy care.
A study funded by the Bowel Disease Research Foundation (BDRF) has helped to improve our understanding of and to improve bowel cancer prevention through a groundbreaking investigation of fluorescent technologies. The study helped doctors during colonoscopy, using a type of plant protein called lectins to identify abnormal areas of the bowel at risk of developing into cancer.
Lectins bind differently to the bowel wall depending on whether or not the tissue is abnormal – thus identifying lesions that could develop into cancer.
The European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP) has launched a new mobile application to enable an enhanced interactive experience for delegates at this year’s Annual Meeting of the Society in Berlin, Germany. This year’s programme includes keynote sessions from leaders in the surgical field including from Prof Yves Panis, Prof Nicolas Demartines and Mr Brendan Moran. Sessions will cover topics ranging from minimally invasive surgery for ulcerative colitis, to treating early colorectal cancer to enhanced recovery programmes after surgery.
An analysis of more than 600 major colorectal surgeries using a "checklist" tool has added further evidence that racial and socioeconomic disparities may occur during many specific stages of surgical care, particularly in pain management.
A report of the study's findings by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine, published in Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, documents the specific ways in which historically disadvantaged populations receive less optimal pain management and are placed on "enhanced recovery" protocols later than their wealthier and white counterparts.
In an innovative approach to colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and treatment, scientists are studying ways to replace missing metabolites in patients prone to gut inflammation and CRC. The study, 'Gut Microbe-mediated Suppression of Inflammation-associated Colon Carcinogenesis by Luminal Histamine Production', was published in the American Journal of Pathology, describes how administration of histamine-producing gut microbes to mice lacking the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) reduced inflammation and tumour formation.
Genetic research conducted at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine and Stanley S Scott Cancer Center has demonstrated for the first time that a novel protein can cause normal cells in the lining of the colon to become malignant, grow and spread, as well as take on the characteristics of stem cells. The work, which details the process, is published online in Nature Research's Scientific Reports.
The debate on whether to shorten adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer from six to three months was debated in a special session at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.
A team of scientists and engineers at The University of Texas at Austin has invented a powerful tool that rapidly and accurately identifies cancerous tissue during surgery, delivering results in about 10 seconds - more than 150 times as fast as existing technology. The MasSpec Pen is an innovative handheld instrument that gives surgeons precise diagnostic information about what tissue to cut or preserve, helping improve treatment and reduce the chances of cancer recurrence.
Medrobotics has announced today that world’s first robotic-assisted scarfree colorectal surgery with the Medrobotics Flex Robotic System was performed at George Washington University Hospital. The procedure to remove a suspected cancerous lesion from the rectum of an adult male, was carried out by Dr Vincent Obias, Director of Robotics and Professor of Colorectal Surgery at the George Washington University Hospital.
Outreach and notification to patients and physicians improved colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among patients who were not up-to-date or nonadherent with CRC screening, according to two studies published in JAMA.
Bacteria in the gut could stimulate tumour cells to produce factors that regulate cell mobility called chemokines that recruit T cells to the tumour, which is linked to improved outcomes, according to data presented at the Third CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival.
Bowel cancer patients who are single or live in deprived areas are twice as likely to struggle to cope with their disease, compared to those in a relationship or from wealthy areas, according to research by the University of Southampton and Macmillan Cancer Support. The study, published in the Journal of Cancer Survivorship, found that bowel cancer patients living in the most deprived areas are twice as likely to have little or no confidence in managing their cancer (low 'self-efficacy') compared to those living in the most affluent areas (12 per cent vs six per cent).
Researchers in Georgia State University's Institute for Biomedical Sciences have received a four-year, US$1.4 million federal grant to study novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of intestinal inflammation.
A re-analysis of all-cause mortality in the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) evidence review for colorectal cancer screening found that flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces risk of mortality. These findings suggest that the USPSTF guidelines for colorectal cancer screening, which concluded that no colorectal cancer screening methods reduced all-cause mortality, could be reassessed. The paper, ‘Re-analysis of All-Cause Mortality in the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2016 Evidence Report on Colorectal Cancer Screening,’ is published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Ethicon has announced the launch of its ProxiSure Suturing Device, an advanced laparoscopic suturing device featuring Ethicon endomechanical, suture and curved needle technologies. The addition of ProxiSure builds upon Ethicon's expansive portfolio of suturing technologies while establishing a new standard of excellence in laparoscopic suturing, the company stated.
The FDA has approved Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Opdivo (nivolumab) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult and paediatric (12 years and older) patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that has progressed following treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.
Researchers at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have developed a new system that can efficiently search through hundreds of hours of laparoscopic surgery videos for events and visual features that correspond to a few training examples. Although recordings of laparoscopic surgeries contain a wealth of information that could be useful for training both medical providers and computer systems that would aid with surgery, but because reviewing them is so time consuming, they mostly sit idle.
Research funded by the Bowel Diseases Research Foundation (BDRF) and spearheaded at the University of Manchester and the Christie NHS Foundation Trust Manchester, UK, has found that rates of lymph node spread are being overestimated, potentially leading to overtreatment of patients with radiotherapy.
ConvaTec has announced the global launch of the Natura Convex Cut-to-Fit Accordion Flange designed to make two-piece ostomy pouch application easier and more comfortable for people with a stoma.
Colorectal cancer mortality rates have increased in US adults under 55 since the mid-2000s after falling for decades, strengthening evidence that previously reported increases in incidence in this age group are not solely the result of more screening. The rise was confined to white individuals according to the report, ‘Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates in Adults Aged 20 to 54 Years in the United States, 1970-2014’, which appears in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Collaborators in a new US programme for hospitals designed to improve the recovery of surgical patients have identified their first set of evidence-based recommendations: a care plan for colon and rectal surgical procedures. This review of the best available scientific evidence for optimal care before, during, and after colorectal operations is published online on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website.
Researchers from Michigan Medicine and China have discovered that a type of bacterium is associated with the recurrence of colorectal cancer and poor outcomes. They found that Fusobacterium nucleatum in the gut can stop chemotherapy from causing apoptosis. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The two most widely used drugs to treat colorectal cancer act to either inhibit enzyme activity of cancer cells or arrest tumour cell growth, Fusobacterium nucleatum can make them ineffective.
Offering monetary incentives to patients eligible for a preventive colonoscopy screening more than doubled the rate of screening when compared to a simple emailed request, according to research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Screening colonoscopies improve the chance of early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer, but tens of millions of Americans who should have preventive screenings fail to get them.
A study by researchers form Rabin Medical Center and the Tel Aviv University in Israel has uncovered a link between being overweight or obese in adolescence and an increased risk of developing colon cancer in adulthood.
Published in the journal Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings revealed that obesity was also associated with an elevated risk of developing rectal cancer, and come at a time of growing concern about the impact of adolescent overweight and obesity on chronic disease later in life.
A select group of patients with rectal cancer who undergo chemotherapy and radiation may have low rates of recurrence and good survival rates regardless of whether they go on to have surgery.
The conventional treatment for people with cancer of the rectum that has spread to nearby tissues or lymph nodes but not to other organs is chemoradiation to shrink the tumour, followed by surgery. But the surgery can result in complications, a permanent colostomy and poor quality of life.
Bowel-cancer screening in New Zealand will improve health cost effectively, according to University of Otago research published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. The researchers used computer modelling to investigate health gains and found that the programme is very cost-effective for Māori and non-Māori, and for men and women. However, it will not improve ethnic inequalities in health
The first-ever "disease in a Petri dish" platform that models human colon cancer derived from stem cells has been developed by Weill Cornell Medicine investigators, allowing them to identify a targeted drug treatment for a common, inherited form of the disease. The discovery also overcomes a long-standing challenge of using mice to research this form of cancer, as they do not typically develop the disease.
The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons has published clinical practice guidelines for enhanced recovery after colon and rectal surgery. According to the organisations, these clinical practice guidelines represent a collaborative effort between the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) and a continuation of their dedication to ensuring high-quality perioperative patient care.
The American Gastroenterological Association has published a White Paper that assessed the impact of mental and psychosocial factors on the care of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), to provide “gastroenterologists with information that would help them incorporate psychosocial aspects of IBD care into their practices.
Patients with common widespread forms of cancer could enjoy longer life expectancy and reduced risk of recurrence due to a multimodal optical spectroscopy probe developed by Canadian researchers. In 2015, scientists at Polytechnique Montréal, the Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital (The Neuro), McGill University, and the MUHC developed a hand-held Raman spectroscopy probe allowing surgeons to accurately detect virtually all brain cancer cells in real time during surgery.
Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD) has announced that its new line of Snowden-Pencer 3.0mm laparoscopic ergonomic take-apart instruments received FDA 510(k) clearance for use in laparoscopic surgery. The new line of Snowden-Pencer 3.0mm laparoscopic ergonomic take-apart instruments are designed for micro-laparoscopic surgery and function like 5.0mm instruments. The jaw lengths of the devices mirror those of standard laparoscopic instruments, providing surgeons with a less invasive approach without compromising instrument functionality.
Stryker has announced that it will acquire NOVADAQ Technologies for US$701 million with a net purchase price of US$654 million, reflecting net cash of approximately US$47 million. NOVADAQ is a leading developer of fluorescence imaging technology that provides surgeons with visualisation of blood flow in vessels, and related tissue perfusion in cardiac, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, plastic, microsurgical and reconstructive procedures.
After reviewing nearly 3.7 million patient records, Cleveland Clinic researchers have shown that newly diagnosed cancer patients are having to wait longer to begin treatment, a delay that is associated with a substantially increased risk of death, according to research presented at the ASCO Annual meeting.
Researchers at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey have reported that stage IV colorectal cancer patients who survived at least two years have a better prognosis than originally thought. The outcomes from this retrospective analysis were presented as part of a poster presentation at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting.
Laparoscopic surgery for T4a tumours might be safe, whereas for T4b colon cancer requiring multivisceral resection (MVR) it should be applied with caution, these are the conclusion from a systematic review of literature by researchers from the Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The paper, ‘Laparoscopic surgery for T4 colon cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, was published in Surgical Endoscopy.
A comprehensive Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme at Kaiser Permanente's 20 Northern California medical centres involving nearly 9,000 surgical patients showed a decrease in hospital mortality among colorectal resection patients and increased rates of home discharge over discharge to skilled nursing facilities among hip fracture patients. The programme also resulted in a one-third relative reduction in postoperative complication rates and a 21 percent reduction in opioid prescribing rates.
Intuitive Surgical’s da Vinci X Surgical System has received CE Mark approval in Europe. The da Vinci X System will provide surgeons and hospitals with access to some of the most advanced robotic-assisted surgery technology at a lower cost, the company claims, and the launch of the da Vinci X System underscores Intuitive’s commitment to meeting customers’ needs with a strong value-oriented portfolio of cost-appropriate technologies and an array of financing options.
A new, multi-centre study on Cook Medical’s Hemospray Endoscopic Hemostat device has revealed that the use of Hemospray demonstrated a more than 98% successful hemostasis rate, while the 30-day rebleeding rate was 10%. The results, ‘Successful hemostasis of active lower GI bleeding using a hemostatic powder as monotherapy, combination therapy, or rescue therapy’, were published in the April 2019 edition of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Researchers from Queen’s University have demonstrated how a precise integration of the results of both pathological and molecular analysis of tumour and normal tissue from the bowel can ensure a correct interpretation of the data, providing a more accurate result that can underpin better treatment options for bowel cancer patients. The paper, ‘Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signature assessment in colorectal cancer quantifies tumour stromal content rather than true transition,’ in the journal The Journal of Pathology.
Ten years after a negative colonoscopy, Kaiser Permanente members had 46 percent lower risk of being diagnosed with and were 88 percent less likely to die from colorectal cancer compared with those who did not undergo colorectal cancer screening, according to a study, ‘Long-term Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Related Deaths After a Colonoscopy With Normal Findings’, published in JAMA Internal Medicine.
An international team of researchers led by Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) has developed, calibrated, and validated a novel tool for identifying the genetic changes in Lynch syndrome genes that are likely to be responsible for causing symptoms of the disease. The paper, ‘A functional assay–based procedure to classify mismatch repair gene variants in Lynch syndrome,’ was published in Genetics in Medicine
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